Abraham F Parker
Abraham F. Parker was born in 1819 in Kentucky and married CECILIA ANN DUNCAN in Daviess County, Kentucky on November 11, 1842. Cecilia was born in 1827 in Daviess County, Kentucky and is the daughter of Hewitt Duncan and Rebecca Hopkins. Abraham and Cecilia are th e parents of Benjamin Wesleyn Parker who married Martha Elizabeth Roberts. Their daughter Annie B. Parker married George Albert Richardson. Their daughter is Bertha Ann Richardson, my grandmother, so Abraham F. Parker is Bertha's Great Grandfather. Abraham was in Company G, 5th Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers.
The 5th Ky. Cavalry was actively engaged on military duty several months before it was regularly mustered into service. Col. David R. Haggard resided, in 1861, in the same general section of the state as Cols. Wolford, Ward, and Hobson. This was peculiarly on the border and separated from the protection which the state had in closer proximity to the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, along which the great armies moved. The organized Confederate forces in Tennessee were in a threatening attitude toward all Southeastern Kentucky in the summer of 1861, and the Cumberland River section was especially exposed. This condition led to the organization of the Unionists as a measure of self-protection. Col. Haggard early began the formation of a regiment.
In a communication from Gen. Sherman to Gen. Thomas, of date October 31, 1861, he says; "Col. Haggard is at Columbia with a regiment." November 12th: "Col. Haggard resuming his camp at Burksville, November 14th." Gen. Sherman says: "Cols. Grider and Haggard are at Columbia, and are acquainted with all the country as far as Bowling Green." All through December and January, 1861, Col. Haggard's cavalry was scouting the country south of Columbia. In February, after the Confederates fell back from Bowling Green, the 5th Cavalry went to Gallatin, Tenn. It was there mustered into the United States service at Camp Sandige March 31, 1862. It then numbered 943, and its subsequent career proved it to be one of the most valuable regiments in the service. The names of the officers by whom it was led are very striking. Col. Haggard had been for years a prominent man in his part of the state and a state official. Col. Wm. P. Sanders, soon made a brigadier general, was a brilliant officer, educated at West Point. He was killed at Knoxville November, 1863, and the celebrated fort there was named in his honor. There were no more gallant officers that Cols. Haggard, Sanders, Baldwin and Hoblitzell, and Majs. Owsley, Cheek, Glore, and Wharton; Capts. Fleming, Faris, John W. Forrester, Charles Gill; Surgs. Wm. Forrester and Hugh Mulholland were faithful and excellent officers.
May 14, 1862, Gen. Negley, at Rogersville, Ala, reports a battalion of the 5th, under Maj. Owsley, making a forced march from Pulaski against the enemy on the Lamb's Ferry Road, where a lively fight occurred, and endurance and soldierly conduct by Maj. Owsley and his men is especially mentioned. In June the regiment, under Col. Haggard, with other troops, crossed the Cumberland Mountain and reconnoitered toward Chattanooga. July 7th is was at Columbia, and on the 8th between Duck River and Wartrace; July 14th at Tantalon.
August 11th the 5th, with other regiments under Gen. Richard W. Johnson, left McMinnville, Tenn., and engaged Morgan's Command at Gallatin, but were defeated. Gen. Johnson especially commends the conduct of Capt. Carter and Lieuts. Campbell and Cheek in this fight. Maj. Winfrey was taken prisoner.
September 1862, Col. John Kennett took command of the 1st and 2d Cavalry brigades, the 5th being in the 2d. Maj. Owsley then commanded the regiment. The 5th participated in the march of Buell's Army in pursuit of Bragg, and is reported as being at Louisville in September.
On the 14th of November, 1862, Col. Kennett reports the 5th as detached from him and on duty at Nashville. It was at Nashville in December, and on December 17th two companies were sent to Brentwood. December 19th and in January, 1863, the 5th was in Mitchell's Division, under Maj. Owsley. It remained on duty at Nashville until the spring of 1863. In the organization of the Army of the Cumberland, June 30, 1863, the 5th Mitchell's Division, Gen. Ed McCook's brigade, and command of Lieut. Col. Hoblitzell. In June and July, 1863, the 5th was engaged in very severe service in Middle Tennessee. July 3d the brigade, in which were the 3d Ky. Cavalry, 5th Ky. Cavalry and 6th Ky Cavalry, was led by Col. Watkins, of the 6th. Gen. Sheridan's report of this campaign says the troops moved from Murfreesboro toward Shelbyville, fought at Christiana, camped at Millersburg, then moved to Winchester. There, hearing that Confederate Gen. Wharton was seven miles away, he ordered Watkins to move against him with the 5th and 6th Ky. Cavalry. He says: "This reconnoissance was handsomely executed by Col. Watkins, who drove the enemy about three miles, inflicting a severe loss."
Col. Watkins says, in his report of the movements of the 5th and 6th Cavalry under his command , June 23d, marched from Franklin to Triune; June 25th , marched to Murfreesboro; June 28th, from Murfreesboro back to Christiana; 29th, within 5 miles of Shelbyville; 30th, at Shelbyville, and made a reconnoissance on the road to Tullahoma; July 2d, to Tullahoma; July 3d, to Cowan and reported to Gen. Sheridan; July 4th, made a reconnoissance toward University, met the enemy and engaged in a sharp fight; 5th, camped at Cowan; 7th, reported to Gen. Mitchell. At that time the 5th Cavalry, under Hoblitzell, made an expedition to the mountains and returned. Horses reported worn down.
In the organization of Rosecrans' army, August 31, 1863, the 5th was in Watkins Brigade, in Stanley's Division. The brigade consisted of the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Ky Cavalry Regiments. When the battle of Chickamauga took place, September 19th and 20th, the cavalry corps was under Gen. Mitchell and the 5th was still in Watkins brigade, of Gen Ed McCook's Division. It fought in the battle of Chickamauga, at Crawfish Springs, and was very much cut up. On September 23d it was at Williams' house, 12 miles above Kelly's Ferry, under Col. Hoblitzell; September 27, between Williams' Island and Jasper, October 4th, Gen. Tillson reports the 5th going toward McMinnville, with other troops, in pursuit of Wheeler.
December 20th, 1863, the 5th went with a cavalry force under Gen. W. S. Smith on an expedition against Gen. Forrest across the Tennessee River. In Gen. Smith's report, he says he ordered the 5th to move from Columbia to the mouth of the Duck river, clearing the country, and to watch the river from the mouth of Duck to Savannah; at Savannah it crossed the Tennessee and marched to Corinth, which was reached January 8, 1984; thence to Colliersville, which was reached February 8th; crossed the Tallahatchie and moved toward Pontotoc and Houston; thence to Okolona; fought at Prairie Station. The expedition returned to Memphis, having destroyed a great amount of army supplies and railroads and bridges. The reports say the 5th Cavalry acted with coolness, courage and discipline not excelled by any other troops.
On the return it was especially efficient, resisting the attacks of a strong pursuing force. Maj. Cheek, who commanded the regiment, was recommended for promotion.
The 5th was ordered back to Nashville, and, April 2d, was brigaded with the 3d Ky. Cavalry and the 20th Illinois Mounted Infantry. Col. E. H. Murray, of the 3d, commanded the Brigade. May 3, 1864, Col. Baldwin was in command of the regiment, and it entered up on the Atlanta campaign. May 13th, Col. Murray took command of the division. Near Adairville the 5th was sent forward in advance of Gen. Logan, encountered the enemy and drove him all day. "May 19th, moved to Kingston by a road parallel to that occupied by the columns of the armies of the Cumberland and Tennessee." During June and July the 5th was constantly employed, and almost daily engaged with the enemy, acting with the other cavalry of Sherman's army. In August it had crossed the Chattahoochee and made its way to Jonesboro, where a severe fight took place; moved on the McDonough road toward Lovejoy. A battle took place at Fosterville, where the cavalry made a magnificent charge, then "moved to McDonough; thence to Cotton Indian creek, where it camped that night. In the morning, by Lithonia; thence to Decatur and to our old camp at Sandtown, arriving on the 23d having made a complete circuit of Atlanta and the rebel army." (E. H. Murray's Report)
August 26, the 5th, with other cavalry, moved from Sandtown, on the road to Fair Oaks; struck the West Point and Atlanta railroad the 28th. There a portion of the regiment under Maj. Cheek sustained a very severe attack. On the 30th advanced on the Jonesboro road to Flint river; near this river the cavalry, including the 5th, engaged in a battle, which, the report of Col. Baldwin says, was the "most brilliant cavalry fight in the South." September 8th the 5th encamped on the Rough and Ready road. Col. Baldwin especially compliments Maj. Cheek and Capt. Glore, the battalion commanders of his regiment; also Lieut. Griffin.
The Atlanta campaign being over, the 5th moved with Sherman's army northward, through Northern Georgia, during the month of October, 1864. Then it was chosen to accompany Sherman's cavalry in the march to the sea (See 3d Ky. Cavalry, Murray's Report.) It shared all the dangers of that campaign in the cavalry command under Gen. Kilpatrick. After leaving Savannah it marched through the Carolinas, having many encounters. At Monroe's Crossroads, February 8, 1865, Adjt. Mitchell was killed in an engagement. It was also engaged in the battle of Bentonville. The end of the war being at hand, and the term of service of the 5th having expired, it was ordered to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out of service May 3, 1865. The men who re-enlisted as veterans were transferred to the 3d Ky. Cavalry. The foregoing is an inadequate account of this splendid and faithful regiment, but enough is given to show the long, hard service it performed and its great value in the tremendous task of preventing the dismemberment of our national Union.
From Dyer's Compendium:
Organized at Columbus, Ky., December, 1861, to February, 1862, and mustered in at Gallatin, Tenn., March 31, 1862. Served with Unattached Cavalry, Army Ohio, to September, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Army Ohio, to November, 1862. 4th Division, Center 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to July, 1863. (District Central Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio, April to June, 1863; 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 23rd Army Corps, to July, 1863; 4 Cos.) 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, 16th Army Corps, Army Tennessee, to April, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to November, 1864. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to January, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to May, 1865.
SERVICE.--Duty at and near Columbia scouting and operating against guerrillas on border until February, 1862. Gradysville, Ky., December 12, 1861. Moved to Gallatin, Tenn., February, 1862, and duty there and in Tennessee until September. Lebanon, Tenn., May 5. Lamb's Ferry May 10. Expedition to Rodgersville, Ala., 13-14. Lamb's Ferry May 14. Sweeden's Cove June 4. Chattanooga June 7. Raid on Louisville & Nashville Railroad August 12-21 (Detachment). Hartsville Road near Gallatin August 21 (Detachment). March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg, August 22-September 26. Glasgow, Ky., September 18. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-22. Burksville November 8. Kimbrough's Mills, Mill Creek, December 6. Operations against Cluke's forces in Central Kentucky February 18-March 5, 1863. Duty at Franklin and in Middle Tennessee until June. Near Nashville May 4. University Depot and Cowan July 4. Expedition to Huntsville July 13-22. Expedition to Athens, Ala., August 2-8, Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Reconnaissance from Alpine to Summerville and skirmish September 10. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-21. Operations against Wheeler and Roddy September 30-October 17. Smith's Expedition from Nashville to Corinth, Miss., December 28, 1863, to January 8, 1864. Smith's Expedition to Okolona, Miss., February 11-26. Okolona, Ivey's Hill, February 22. New Albany February 23. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May to September. Scout from Alpine to Summerville May, --. Near Nickajack Gap May 7. Near Resaca May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Adairsville May 17. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 4. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. On line of the Nickajack July 2-5. On line of the Chattahoochie July 5-17. Summerville July 7. Sandtown and Fairburn August 15. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Kilpatrick's Raid around Atlanta July 18-22. Lovejoy Station August 20. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Flint River Station August 30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. Camp Creek September 30. Sweetwater and Noyes Creek near Powder Springs October 1-3. Van Wert October 9-10. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Jonesboro November 15. Towallaga Bridge November 16. East Macon November 20. Griswoldsville November 22. Sylvan Grove and near Waynesboro November 27. Waynesboro November 27-28. Near Waynesboro November 28. Near Louisville November 30. Millen Grove and Louisville December 1. Rocky Creek Church December 2. Waynesboro December 4. Siege of Savanhah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Blackville, S.C., February 7. Near White Post February 8. Williston February 8. Johnson's Station, February 11. About Columbia February 15-17. Lancaster February 27. Phillips' Cross Roads, N. C., March 4. Rockingham March 7. Monroe's Cross Roads March 10. Averysboro, Taylor's Hole Creek, March 16. Battle of Bentonville March 19-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 8-13. Morrisville and occupation of Raleigh April 13. Chapel Hill April 15. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. Mustered out May 3, 1865.
Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 32 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 5 Officers and 172 Enlisted men by disease. Total 213.
Abraham's regiment engaged in the following battles among other skirmishes and seiges not mentioned.
Chattanooga-June 7- 8, 1862
Description: In late Spring 1862, the Confederacy split its forces in Tennessee into several small commands in an attempt to complicate Federal operations. The Union had to redistribute its forces to counter the Confederate command structure changes. Maj. Gen. Ormsby Mitchel received orders to go to Huntsville, Alabama, with his division to repair railroads in the area. Soon, he occupied more than 100 miles along the Nashville & Chattanooga and Memphis & Charleston railroads. In May, Mitchel and his men sparred with Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smiths men. After Mitchel received command of all Federal troops between Nashville and Huntsville, on May 29, he ordered Brig. Gen. James Negley with a small division to lead an expedition to capture Chattanooga. This force arrived before Chattanooga on June 7. Negley ordered the 79th Pennsylvania Volunteers out to reconnoiter. It found the Confederates entrenched on the opposite side of the river along the banks and atop Cameron Hill. Negley brought up two artillery batteries to open fire on the Rebel troops and the town and sent infantry to the river bank to act as sharpshooters. The Union bombardment of Chattanooga continued throughout the 7th and until noon on the 8th. The Confederates replied, but it was uncoordinated since the undisciplined gunners were allowed to do as they wished. On June 10, Smith, who had arrived on the 8th, reported that Negley had withdrawn and the Confederate loss was minor. This attack on Chattanooga was a warning that Union troops could mount assaults when they wanted. Estimated Casualties: 88 total (US 23; CS 65) Result(s): Union victory
Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia-September 18-20 1863
Description: After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The three army corps comprising Rosecrans s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braggs army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Davis Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecranss army, defeat them, and then move back into the city. On the 17th he headed north, intending to meet and beat the XXI Army Corps. As Bragg marched north on the 18th, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting began in earnest on the morning of the 19th, and Braggs men hammered but did not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg continued his assault on the Union line on the left, and in late morning, Rosecrans was informed that he had a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosencrans created one, and James Longstreets men promptly exploited it, driving one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. George H. Thomas took over command and began consolidating forces on Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill. Although the Rebels launched determined assaults on these forces, they held until after dark. Thomas then led these men from the field leaving it to the Confederates. The Union retired to Chattanooga while the Rebels occupied the surrounding heights. Estimated Casualties: 34,624 total Result(s): Confederate victory
Rocky Face Ridge- May 7-13, 1864
Description: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge and eastward across Crow Valley. As Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman approached, he decided to demonstrate against the position with two columns while he sent a third one through Snake Creek Gap, to the right, to hit the Western & Atlantic Railroad at Resaca. The two columns engaged the enemy at Buzzard Roost (Mill Creek Gap) and at Dug Gap. In the meantime, the third column, under Maj. Gen. James Birdseye McPherson, passed through Snake Creek Gap and on the 9th advanced to the outskirts of Resaca where it found Confederates entrenched. Fearing defeat, McPherson pulled his column back to Snake Creek Gap. On the 10th, Sherman decided to take most of his men and join McPherson to take Resaca. The next morning, Sherman s army withdrew from in front of Rocky Face Ridge. Discovering Shermans movement, Johnston retired south towards Resaca on the 12th. Result(s): Union victory (Union casualties were high, but they did force the Confederates off Rocky Face Ridge.)
New Hope Church- May 25-26, 1864
Description: After Johnston retreated to Allatoona Pass on May 19-20, Sherman decided that he would most likely pay dearly for attacking Johnston there, so he determined to move around Johnstons left flank and steal a march toward Dallas. Johnston anticipated Shermans move and met the Union forces at New Hope Church. Sherman mistakenly surmised that Johnston had a token force and ordered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers corps to attack. This corps was severely mauled. On the 26th, both sides en-trenched, and skirmishing continued throughout the day. Actions the next day in this area are discussed under Picketts Mills. Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US 1,600; CS unknown) Result(s): Confederate victory
Dallas-May 26-June 1, 1864 (May 28, 1864)
Description: Johnstons army fell back from the vicinity of Cassville-Kinston, first to Allatoona Pass and then to the Dallas area and entrenched. Shermans army tested the Rebel line while entrenching themselves. The Battle of Dallas occurred on May 28 when Lt. Gen. William J. Hardees corps probed the Union defensive line, held by Maj. Gen. John A. Logans Army of the Tennessee corps, to exploit any weakness or possible withdrawal. Fighting ensued at two different points, but the Rebels were repulsed, suffering high casualties. Sherman continued looking for a way around Johnstons line, and, on June 1, his cavalry occupied Allatoona Pass, which had a railroad and would allow his men and supplies to reach him by train. Sherman abandoned his lines at Dallas on June 5 and moved toward the railhead at Allatoona Pass forcing Johnston to follow soon afterwards. Estimated Casualties: 5,400 total (US 2,400; CS 3,000) Result(s): Union victory
Atlanta- July 22, 1864
Description: Following the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPhersons Army of the Tennessee. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta s outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee with his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the unprotected Union left and rear, east of the city. Wheelers cavalry was to operate farther out on Shermans supply line, and Gen. Frank Cheathams corps were to attack the Union front. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reservesGrenville Dodges XVI Army Corpsto that location. Two of Hoods divisions ran into this reserve force and were repulsed. The Rebel attack stalled on the Union rear but began to roll up the left flank. Around the same time, a Confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to observe the fighting. Determined attacks continued, but the Union forces held. About 4:00 pm, Cheathams corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House, but Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan s XV Army Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union troops held, and Hood suffered high casualties. Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499) Result(s): Union victory
Lovejoys Station-August 20, 1864
Description: While Confederate Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler was absent raiding Union supply lines from North Georgia to East Tennessee, Maj. Gen. William Sherman, unconcerned, sent Judson Kilpatrick to raid Rebel supply lines. Leaving on August 18, Kilpatrick hit the Atlanta & West Point Railroad that evening, tearing up a small area of tracks. Next, Kilpatrick headed for Lovejoys Station on the Macon & Western Railroad. In transit, on the 19th, Kilpatricks men hit the Jonesborough supply depot on the Macon & Western Railroad, burning great amounts of supplies. On the 20th, they reached Lovejoys Station and began their destruction. Rebel infantry (Cleburnes Division) appeared and the raiders were forced to fight into the night, finally fleeing to prevent encirclement. Although Kilpatrick had destroyed supplies and track at Lovejoys Station, the railroad line was back in operation in two days. Estimated Casualties: Unknown Result(s): Confederate victory
Jonesborough- August 31September 1, 1864
Description: Sherman had successfully cut Hoods supply lines in the past by sending out detachments, but the Confederates quickly repaired the damage. In late August, Sherman determined that if he could cut Hoods supply linesthe Macon & Western and the Atlanta & West Point Railroadsthe Rebels would have to evacuate Atlanta. Sherman, therefore, decided to move six of his seven infantry corps against the supply lines. The army began pulling out of its positions on August 25 to hit the Macon & Western Railroad between Rough and Ready and Jonesborough. To counter the move, Hood sent Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee with two corps to halt and possibly rout the Union troops, not realizing Shermans army was there in force. On August 31, Hardee attacked two Union corps west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. Fearing an attack on Atlanta, Hood withdrew one corps from Hardees force that night. The next day, a Union corps broke through Hardee s troops which retreated to Lovejoys Station, and on the night of September 1, Hood evacuated Atlanta. Sherman did cut Hoods supply line but failed to destroy Hardees command. Estimated Casualties: 3,149 total (US 1,149; CS 2,000) Result(s): Union victory
Allatoona-October 5, 1864
Description: After the fall of Atlanta, Hood moved northward to threaten the Western & Atlantic Railroad, Shermans supply line. He attacked a number of minor garrisons and damaged track during October 2-4. Sherman sent reinforcementsJohn M. Corses brigadeto Allatoona just before the Rebels attacked there. Maj. Gen. Samuel G. Frenchs Confederate division arrived near Allatoona at sunrise on the 5th. After demanding a surrender and receiving a negative reply, French attacked. The Union outer line survived a sustained two and a half hour attack, but then fell back and regrouped in an earthen Star fort of Allatoona Pass. French repeatedly attacked, but the fort held. The Rebels began to run out of ammunition, and reports of arriving Union reinforcements influenced them to move off and rejoin Hoods force. Estimated Casualties: 1,505 total (US 706; CS 799)
Griswoldville-November 22, 1864
Description: Brig. Gen. Charles Walcutt was ordered to make a demonstration, with the six infantry regiments and one battery that comprised his brigade, toward Macon to ascertain the disposition of enemy troops in that direction. He set out on the morning of November 22, and after a short march he ran into some of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheelers cavalry and drove them beyond Griswoldville. Having accomplished his mission, Walcutt retired to a position at Duncans Farm and fortified it with logs and rails to meet an expected Rebel attack force composed of three brigades of Georgia State Militia. The Georgia Militia had been ordered from Macon to Augusta, thinking the latter was Shermans next objective, and accidentally collided with Walcutts force. The Union force withstood three determined charges before receiving reinforcements of one regiment of infantry and two regiments of cavalry. The Rebels did not attack again and soon retired. Estimated Casualties: 712 total (US 62; CS 650) Result(s): Union victory
Waynesborough-December 4, 1864
Description: As Shermans infantry marched southeast through Georgia, his cavalry under Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick rode northeastward. He set out on the morning of December 4 to attack Waynesborough and destroy Joseph Wheelers cavalry command. That morning Kilpatricks men advanced, driving the Rebel skirmishers in front of them. The Union force then came up against a defensive line of barricades which they eventually overran. As the Union advance continued, they met more barricades which required time to overcome. Finally, the Confederates fell back to a final line of barricades within the town. After furious fighting, the Union troops broke through and Wheelers force ran. Estimated Casualties: 440 total (US 190; CS 250) Result(s): Union victory
Monroes Cross Roads-March 10, 1865
Description: As Shermans army advanced into North Carolina, Kilpatricks Cavalry Division screened its left flank. On the evening of March 9, two of Kilpatricks brigades encamped near the Charles Monroe House in Cumberland (now Hoke) County. Early on the 10th, Confederate cavalry under the command of Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton surprised the Federals in their camps, driving them back in confusion and capturing wagons and artillery. The Federals regrouped and counterattacked, regaining their artillery and camps after a desperate fight. With Union reinforcements on the way, the Confederates withdrew. Estimated Casualties: 269 total (US 183; CS 86) Result(s): Inconclusive
Averasborough- March 16, 1865
Description: On the afternoon of March 15, Judson Kilpatricks cavalry came up against Lt. Gen. William Hardees corpsconsisting of Taliaferros and McLaws infantry divisions and Wheelers dismounted cavalrydeployed across the Raleigh Road near Smithville. After feeling out the Confederate defenses, Kilpatrick withdrew and called for infantry support. During the night, four divisions of the XX Corps arrived to confront the Confederates. At dawn, March 16, the Federals advanced on a division front, driving back skirmishers, but they were stopped by the main Confederate line and a counterattack. Mid-morning, the Federals renewed their advance with strong reinforcements and drove the Confederates from two lines of works, but were repulsed at a third line. Late afternoon, the Union XIV Corps began to arrive on the field but was unable to deploy before dark due to the swampy ground. Hardee retreated during the night after holding up the Union advance for nearly two days. Estimated Casualties: 1,419 total Result(s): Inconclusive
Bentonville- March 19-21, 1865
Description: While Slocums advance was stalled at Averasborough by Hardees troops, the right wing of Shermans army under command of Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard marched toward Goldsborough. On March 19, Slocum encountered the entrenched Confederates of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston who had concentrated to meet his advance at Bentonville. Late afternoon, Johnston attacked, crushing the line of the XIV Corps. Only strong counterattacks and desperate fighting south of the Goldsborough Road blunted the Confederate offensive. Elements of the XX Corps were thrown into the action as they arrived on the field. Five Confederate attacks failed to dislodge the Federal defenders and darkness ended the first days fighting. During the night, Johnston contracted his line into a V to protect his flanks with Mill Creek to his rear. On March 20, Slocum was heavily reinforced, but fighting was sporadic. Sherman was inclined to let Johnston retreat. On the 21st, however, Johnston remained in position while he removed his wounded. Skirmishing heated up along the entire front. In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Joseph Mower led his Union division along a narrow trace that carried it across Mill Creek into Johnstons rear. Confederate counterattacks stopped Mowers advance, saving the armys only line of communication and retreat. Mower withdrew, ending fighting for the day. During the night, Johnston retreated across the bridge at Bentonville. Union forces pursued at first light, driving back Wheelers rearguard and saving the bridge. Federal pursuit was halted at Hannahs Creek after a severe skirmish. Sherman, after regrouping at Goldsborough, pursued Johnston toward Raleigh. On April 18, Johnston signed an armistice with Sherman at the Bennett House, and on April 26, formally surrendered his army. Estimated Casualties: 4,738 total (US 1,646; CS 3,092) Result(s): Union victory