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Section Five

Ralph De Warenne married Emma (the daughter of Richard the Fearless and Gunnora De Crepon) and had the following children:

William De Waren Earl of Surrey married Gundred Princess of England and had the following children:

William II De Warenne Earl of Surrey was born 1065 in Sussex, England and died May 11, 1138 in England. He was buried in Priory Of Lewes, Lewes, Sussex, England. He married in France to Isabel (Elizabeth) De Vermandois who was born 1081 in Valois, Bretagne, France and died February 11, 1130/31 in England where she was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England. She is the daughter of Hugh The Great Crepi Count of Verman and Adelaid Countess of Vermandois. More about Isabel's parents: Hugh "The Great" Crepi Count of Verman was born 1050 in Vermandois, Normandy, France and died October 18, 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicie. He is the son of Henry II King of France and Anna Agnesa Yaroslavna Kiev. He was buried in St Paul De Tarse. He married about 1064 to Adelaide Countess Of Vermandois in France. She is the daughter of Berbert IV Count of Vermandois and Edele De Valois (Vexin). William II and Isabel are the parents of:

Ada De Warenne born 1120 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England (Click link for History under section three)

Section Six

Egbert King of Wessex was born 775 in Wessex, England and died February 4, 838/39 in Wessex, England. He married Redburg in Wessex. Wessex, (the kingdom of the West Saxons) was reputedly founded around 494 AD by the Saxon invader Cerdic and his son Cynric, who battled ashore from their 5 ships near Southampton around that date. They and their warriors began to carve out a kingdom taking in modern Hampshire, Somerset and Wiltshire from lands held by the native (although Romanized) Britons living in that area. Cerdic appears to be one of the Saxon warlords defeated at the battle of Mount Badon in 516 by an army of Britons (led according to legend by King Arthur), which led to the tide of Anglo-Saxon invasion being checked for almost 50 years. Cerdic and his son held on to their lands around modern Southampton and gradually from 556 their successors began to expand outward, fighting mostly Britons (until about 620), and later the rival Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which had come to dominate all of England except for the far west and Wales were Britons had fled. Wessex eventually expanded to cover practically all of southern England, south of the Thames, centered on its capital at Winchester, but was overshadowed by the more powerful kingdoms of Northumbria (northern England, dominant between about 620-700), and especially Mercia (central England, dominant between about 700-825). It was under Egbert, the 19th recorded king of Wessex that the kingdom finally escaped from the shadow of Mercia, and began its rise in power, under which it would eventually unite England into a single kingdom. Egbert succeeded his cousin to the throne having spent most of his early life (from 789) in exile at the Frankish court of Charlemagne on the Continent. Although the early years of his rule were spent with him practically a client king to the powerful Mercian throne, he strove energetically throughout his reign to push back the boundaries of Wessex power. His first major success came in 815 when he crushed the forces of Cornwall in the south-west and annexed it to Wessex, but the turning point in his fortunes came in 825. In this year he defeated King Beorhtwulf of Mercia and his forces, at the battle of Ellandun, smashed the last opposition to him in Cornwall at the battle of Galford, and expelled King Baldred from Kent. By the end of the year Egbert controlled not only Wessex but the sub-kingdoms of Kent, Sussex and Essex, and within three years he had occupied Mercia itself, imposing puppet kings there under his overlordship. He even mounted a brief campaign in north Wales in 830, subduing it. Viking raider, with axes raised, rush to attack the ancient monastery at Lindisfarne. Egbert's reign saw the first Viking attacks on southern England, and he defeated a significant force which landed in Cornwall in 836 at Hingston Down. On his death in 839, he ruled either directly or through client kings, all of central and southern England (he never conquered Northumbria), and his descendants were to rule Wessex, and later England for well over the next 200 years.

Major Events of the Reign

802 Egbert becomes king of Wessex.

825 Battle of Ellandun. Egbert, King of Wessex defeats the Mercians and becomes the dominant king in England, having suzerainty over Kent, Essex and Sussex. Vikings burst into the church on Iona, killing the bishop and many monks, before setting fire to the buildings. \par 827 Egbert conquers Mercia, directly controlling all of southern England. \par 830 Egbert marches his men into North Wales, subduing it.

835 The Danes begin to raid the coast of Kent.

836 Egbert's forces are defeated by 25 shiploads of Danes in Somerset.

838 A large Danish force lands in Cornwall and allies with the Britons of Cornwall. Egbert defeats the joint army at Hingston Down.

839 Egbert dies and is succeeded by his sons Aethelwulf (Wessex) and Aethelstan (sub-king in Kent, Sussex and Essex).

Egbert or Ecgbryht as he was also known, expanded his own kingdom, uniting it with Kent and defeating a coalition of Welsh and Vikings in 835. During his reign the centre of power shifted from Mercia to Wessex, where it remained for the next century. Under pressure from the Viking invaders, and with Ecgbryht's leadership and diplomacy, the English kingdoms slowly moved towards a single monarchy, which eventually achieved its strongest leader in Alfred, Ecgbryhts's grandson. Ecgbryht ruled for 36 years and 7 months. Egbert of Wessex (King of England) born circa 770/775 died 4 February 839. Expelled from England, he sought refuge at the Frankish Court where he met and married his wife, Raedburh ore Redburga, who was perhaps a niece of Charlemagne. Returned to England, he peacefully became King of Wessex in 802 after the death of King Beorhtric. Ostensibly they lived in peace as for many years nothing was recorded until 825 when he defeated Beornwulf, King of Mercia. Egbert's son Aethelwulf drove King Baldred of Kent out of his kingdom of Kent and, by 829, Egbert was regarded as King of all England. Still peace did not prevail as the invading Danes were then helped by the Cornish, only to be expelled by Egbert who was probably in his sixties when he died in 839. Egbert and Redburg had the following child:

Aethelwulf King of England was born 806 in Wessex, England and died January 13, 856/57 in England . He married Osburh in 868. From 828 Aethelwulf was ruling the sub-kingdom of Kent, under the overlordship of his father, coming into his inheritance as King of Wessex on Egbert's death in 839, while his younger brother Aethelstan succeeded him in Kent. Throughout Aethelwulf's reign Viking raids, previously mainly sporadic and concentrated on the northern coast of England, increased steadily to become an annual cause of fear and distress over the whole country. The first major attack on southern cities came in 851 when a force of about 350 longships landed in Kent and sacked London and Canterbury. Combining with King Beorhtwulf of Mercia, and his eldest son Aethelbald, Aethelwulf won a major victory over the Danes, putting their expedition to flight. His brother Aethelstan won a sea battle against the same force later that same year, but the overall tide of invasion was barely slowed by the Saxon campaigns, and more raiders returned the next year. In 853 Aethelwulf again joined forces with his Mercian neighbors under King Burgred, Beorhtwulf successor, to defeat the Welsh on his western border. Later that year Aethelwulf married off his daughter to Burgred, further cementing their alliance. Keen to set a good example of Christian behavior to his people, his youngest son Alfred, still only 4 years old, was send off to Rome and was introduced to the Pope. He was probably the most pious of the Wessex dynasty, and pledged a tenth of his land to the Church. Two years later in 855 Aethelwulf himself undertook a pilgrimage to Rome, again taking Alfred with him. They were to stay in the holy city for almost a year. However, Aethelwulf was not above political maneuvering, and on the journey home from Rome he married the 13 year old daughter of Charles, the Bald, King of the Franks, a diplomatic gesture that did not please his sons.Back in England Aethelbald had usurped his father's throne, and when he finally returned to Wessex Aethelwulf was forced to share power with his eldest son for the last two years of his reign. His influence within the country was hardly diminished however, with the other great kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria being seriously weakened by continual Viking attack, the country looked to Wessex for leadership. A finely crafted gold ring belonging to Aethelwulf and inscribed with his name, was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire and now lies in the British Museum, and remains one of the finest pieces from the Anglo-Saxon age. His body lies at Winchester.

Major Events of the Reign

839 Egbert dies and is succeeded by his sons Aethelwulf (Wessex) and Aethelstan (sub-king in Kent, Sussex and Essex). The king of the Picts in Scotland is killed by Danes.

840 Danes spend winter camped on British shores for the first time.

841 The Danes found Dublin in Ireland as a trading station and power base for future raids.

842 Danish raiders kill many in London and Rochester.

845 A Saxon force from Dorset and Somerset defeat a Danish army on the River Parrett.

851 Over 300 shiploads of Danes sail into London and sack the city. They attack Canterbury and defeat a Mercian army,but are later repulsed by a force from Wessex under Aethelwulf. Aethelstan wins a sea battle against the same force later in the year.

853 Alfred, Aethelwulf's youngest son visits Rome.

855 Alfred returns to Rome with his father. Danes spend their first winter on the Isle of Sheppey, off the Kent coast.

858 Aethelwulf dies and is succeeded by his eldest son, Aethelbald. Athelwulf King of England and Osburh are the parents of the following child:

The Great Afred King of England was born 849 in and died October 26, 901 in Winchester, Hampshire, England. He married 868 in Winchester, England to Ealhwith or Alswitha De Gainsborough the daughter of King of Mercia. Alfred came to the throne with England suffering a national crisis, namely the ravages of the Danish "Great Army" which had established itself in East Anglia in early 865, and had spent the next 5 years crushing resistance first in Northumbria and then in Mercia. Late 870 saw the Danes turn their attention on Wessex, and during the first four months of 871, Alfred and his elder brother King Aethelred I, fought a series of eight battles against them. Although a several battles were victories for the English, notably Englefield (31st Dec 870) and Ashdown (8th Jan 871), the general trend of the campaign was in the Danes favour, and when in April 871, Aethelred died as a result of wounds received at the battle of Merton, Alfred was crowned king of Wessex. Alfred's reign began badly. A decisive defeat in May 871 forced him to reluctantly buy peace and after several years of minor skirmishes, the Danes won a crushing victory over the Anglo-Saxon's in the first weeks of 878. His army all but destroyed, and his towns captured, Alfred was driven to hiding out as a virtual outlaw in the Athelney marshes of Somerset. The remarkable resilience and determination of the king and his followers during these bitter months was later to become enshrined in legend, asAlfred used all his considerable personal magnetism to lift his dispirited men and raise a new army. In mid-May 878 at Edington, Alfred's hastily assembled force won a resounding victory, and the Danes were finally on the defensive. The rest of Alfred's reign saw the army of Wessex gradually rolling back the frontiers of Danish held lands . A major sea-invasion from Denmark late in the reign (892-896) was repulsed, and in any case, such armies as the Danes had, proved unable to stop Alfred's recapture of southern and central England from the Viking warlords. In addition to being a successful military leader, Alfred, dubbed "the Great" was a supreme planner and organizer. Determined that England should not come so close to disaster ever again, he built up a large fleet of ships, each one faster, larger and generally superior to those of the Danish invaders. He completely reorganized the peasant militia, the fyrd, so that it would provide a highly mobile reserve force as well as the main body of troops. Alfred also began on a programme of building permanent fortifications (known as burhs) to protect important towns, and to guard militarily strategic points, a process completed by his son Edward the Elder. \par \tab Alfred was careful not to neglect other responsibilities of government. He launched a major new law-code, the first such example of law giving in Wessex for nearly two centuries, and reorganized his kingdom into shires for administration purposes.A wise and just ruler, Alfred was deeply religious, his two visits to Rome while still only a small child having a profound affect on him, and he was a scholar too. He attracted men of learning to his court from all over England and continental Europe, ordering translations into English of the texts of Pope Gregory the Great. Keen to help the task he himself learnt Latin when almost 40, and had a hand in the copying of manuscripts. In addition to founding a great monastery at Athelney, and a nunnery\par at Shaftsbury, Alfred encouraged the wider dissemination of knowledge, stating as his prime ambition that every freeborn youth in England would be able to read and write English. His later reign was troubled with ill health, and his death in 899 robbed the country of one of its greatest rulers, but under the steady hands of his descendants Wessex managed to unite England, drive back the Danish threats and establish itself as a prosperous and stable realm.

Major Events of the Reign

871 Battle of Ashdown. Aethelred and Alfred of Wessex defeat the Danes, but Aethelred later dies and other battles do not go so well for the Saxons. Alfred becomes king of Wessex.

872 Danes occupy London.

875 Danes under Guthrum attack Wessex, from their camps in East Anglia

878 Alfred of Wessex is defeated and driven into the Athelney marshes. Later at the Battle of Edington he leads troops from over the whole of southern England to a decisive victory against Guthrum.

879 The Treaty of Wedmore is concluded between Guthrum and Alfred. Guthrum is baptized and converted, and the Danes are given East Anglia to settle (henceforth known as the Danelaw).

886 Alfred takes and occupies London.

892 A large Danish force under Haesten invades England, but meets with only limited success against Alfred's men of Wessex.

896 Haesten's Viking force is dispersed

899 King Alfred the Great of Wessex dies.

His father, Aethelwulf send him to Rome when he was 4 years old. Leo was pope then, who hallowed him king and was his godfather at confirmation. Alfred reigned 871 - 899 and emerged as a more complex and forceful king than any earlier ruler, and his devotion to his subjects and his innovative abilities are made very evident. There is no evidence that Alfred himself ordered the Chronicles to be compiled, but his well-known interest in learning and history would certainly have stimulated such a project. The story of the Scandinavian invasions in the early 9th century was written during Alfred's reign and the account of Alfred's own battles makes skillful propaganda for the royal house of Wessex. Alfred came to the throne of Wessex in 871 on the death of his brother Aethelred, at a moment when English fortunes were low. Throughout his reign, his chief preoccupation was to ward off Danish invasions. By 870, The Vikings had taken all England bar Wessex. The next year, Alfred 'made Peace with them, providing a large payment or Danegeld. The Viking army divided. One part settled in Yorkshire, began to farm the land and gradually became integrated with existing inhabitants. The other followed Goodrum to Cambridge, from where in 876, yet another assault was launched on Wessex. Having lost 5000 men at sea, the Vikings were forced to retreat to Mercia, but in January 878, after Twelfth night, they surprised Alfred's army as it was celebrating the holy feast at Chippenham. Central and western Wessex were immediately occupied and Alfred fled into the Somerset fen country. In May, however, he gathered a large army, marched to meet Goodrum and finally won a decisive battle at Edington, 15 miles from Chippenham. Even though much of Wessex was taken in 878, by the late 890's a balance of power had been achieved. Alfred passed away six nights before All Saint's Day. One of the outstanding figures in English history, Alfred's laws were the first that made no distinction between the English and the Welsh peoples. He was the only ruler to resist Danish invasions successfully and laid the foundation for the unification of England. The Great Alfred King of England and Ealhswith or Alswitha De Gainsborough are the parents of the following child:

The Elder Edward King of England was born 870 in Wessex, England and died July 17, 924 in Fardon-on-Dee, Mercia, Cheshire, England. He married Aelfleda born 896 whom he married 919 in Berkshire, England. Continuing the work of his father, Edward's reign saw the Danish armies which had come so close to overwhelming the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms pushed ever further back. During his youth these forces had destroyed the ancient kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia, and had brought Alfred's kingdom of Wessex to the brink of collapse, but as the tide began to turn, Edward became his father's chief general in the field, and defeated the Danes at Farnham in 893, from when on he probably undertook the more strenuous campaigning on behalf of Alfred. Immediately after his accession to the throne in 899, Edward had first to successfully see off a revolt from his Danish backed cousin Aethelwald, and then to turn his attention back to the Danes themselves. After a series of skirmishes he effectively destroyed the military power of the Northumbrian Danes at Tettenham (5th Aug 910), and embarked on a major programme of defensive fortress building between the years 910 and 916. In this and in many other military preparations, Edward was ably assisted by his sister Aethelflaed, who had become queen of Mercia. Together they launched a joint and carefully co-ordinated campaign against the Danes of East Anglia in 917, and by the end of 918 had united all of central and southern England under Edward's rule. Furthermore, by 920 he was acknowledged as overlord by most of the Welsh kings and by the Danish kingdom of York (Northumbria), where integration of Anglo-Saxon and Dane was now almost total. Like his father, Edward set about rewriting law codes, and he founded churches, notably the New Minster at his capital of Winchester. The coinage issued during Edward's reign is also graceful and original, indicated the new prosperity and peace in the southern part of the country. Chiefly though, Edward's greatest achievement is the further steps he made to uniting the whole of England into a single political entity, a process begun by his father and formerly completed in the early years of his son Aethelstan's reign.

Major Events of the Reign

900 Coronation of King Edward the Elder of Wessex.

910 The reconquest of the Danelaw begins under King Edward the Elder. Edward wins the decisive battle of Tettenham against the Danish kingdom of York.

918 Edward conquers East Anglia and southern England, and receives the "submissions" of the Welsh kings of Dyfed and Gwynedd.

919 Ragnald, newly installed ruler of the Viking kingdom of York, recognizes Edward the Elder as his overlord.

923 The King of the Scots makes his submission to King Edward. Edward now controls, directly or indirectly, all of England and southern Scotland.

924 Edward the Elder dies and is succeeded by his son Aethelstan.

He was known as Edward, the Elder and received the kingdom from his father, Alfred, the Great in 900. Edward as a military strategist is clearly admired by the Chroniclers. The army itself was strong and well organized, while its Danish opponents had lost the momentum and skill of the Viking army of the 860's. Although he was less compassionate than his father, Edward showed great determination and assurance as a military leader and as king. In 911, Aethelred I, lord of the Mercians, died, and king Edward received the boroughs of London and Oxford, with all the lands which belonged to them. After Martinmas, King Edward commanded the northern borough at Herford to be built, between the Maran and the Beane and the Lea. After that in summer, between Rogation and midsummer, King Edward went with some of his supporters to Maldon in Essex and camped there for the time the borough was worked on and built at Wigham. in 918 after the death of his sister Aethelflaed of Mercia, he inherited all her holdings. He passed away in 924 and his son Aelfweard very soon after - sixteen days - at Oxford. He is buried in Winchester Cathedral, England. The Elder Edward King of England married Aelfleda and had the following child:

Edmund , The Magnficent King of England was born 923 in England and died May 26, 946 in Pucklechurch, Dorset, England. He married St. Aelfgifu . He received the kingdom when he was 18 years old when King Aethelstan passed away. Edmund came to the throne already a skilled military leader, having commanded under his half-brother Aethelstan at Brunanburh against a combined Scottish-Viking force. He was quickly forced to put such abilities to good use as he recaptured parts of the Midlands (942) and Northumbria (944), seized by a powerful Norse leader King Olaf Guthfrithson of Dublin in the final days of Aethelstan's reign. Edmund's forces also subdued the border kingdom of Strathclyde in 945, which was handed to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for promised military aid, forming a loose alliance between the kings. King Edmund besieged King Olaf and Archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester, and might have overcome them had they not escaped out of the town that night. After this, Olaf obtained King Edmunds friendship and King Edmund received him at baptism and gave him kingly gifts. The same year, after a long space of time, he received King Raegnald at the bishops hands. King Edmund overcame all Northumbrian lands in his power and drove out the two kings, Olaf son of Sihtric and Raegnald son of Guthferth, King Edmund passed away on St. Augustine's Day. He was stabbed to death in his own hall at Pucklechurch, by an outlawed thief, Leofa, and the crown passed to his younger brother Eadred. Aethelflaed of Damerham, earl Aelfgar's daughter was then his queen. Then after him Eadred his brother received the kingdom and he brought all the land of Northumbria under his rule. The Scots then gave him oaths that they would do all he willed. Buried Gastonbury Abbey, Somerset, England. Under Edmund the law and order of the realm was more firmly established, and the first Hundred, or district courts originated during his reign.

Major Events of the Reign

939 Aethelstan dies and is succeeded by his brother Edmund I.

940 Dunstan re-founds Gastonbury as a monastic house, and becomes Abbot.

945 Edmund suppresses a Danish forces in Mercia and Northumbria, and forms a loose alliance with King Malcolm of Scotland.

946 Edmund is murdered by an outlaw, Leofa, and is succeeded by this younger brother Eadred. Edmund the Magnficent King of England married St. Aelfgifu and had the following child:

The Peaceful Edgar King of England was born 943 in Wessex, England and died July 8, 975 in Wessex, England. He married Aelfthryth born 945 whom he married 965 in Wessex, England. Edward was also King of Mercia and Northumbria 957 to 959. When King Eadwig (his brother) passed away in 959 he received the kingdoms of Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria. He was then sixteen years old. Discontented nobles, unhappy with his elder brother Eadwig's rule, made Edgar King of Mercia and Northumbria in 957, and Eadwig's death two years later made him King of all England. Edgar quickly recalled Dunstan from exile, who remained his chief advisor throughout his reign, and was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 960. Edgar strongly supported the church, founding at least 40 abbeys, and among the six law-codes issued in his reign is the first mention of penalties for non-payment of taxes to the Church. Known as "the Peaceable", Edgar only launched one serious military campaign, against the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd in 968, and otherwise secured the military successes of his forebears by visible shows of strength, such as the operation of the fleet which he helped to build up. His domination of the whole of Britain was expressed at a solemn coronation ceremony at Bath in 973, after which he sailed his fleet to Chester where he met 6 or 8 other kings (Kenneth II of Scotland, Malcolm of Strathclyde, Maccus of the Isle of Man, and up to 5 Welsh sovereigns). These kings swore fealty to him and then supposedly rowed Edgar on the River Dee, while he held the rudder. Buried Gastonbury Abbey Somerset, England.

Major Events of the Reign

959 King Eadwig dies and the crown passes to Edgar.

960 Dunstan becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. \par 965 Old Westminster Abbey is founded in London.

973 At a coronation ceremony at Bath, Edgar's supremacy as overlord of Britain is asserted in the presence of many of the under-kings of Wales, and Scotland.

975 Edgar dies and is succeeded by his son Edward the Martyr. The Peaceful Edgar King of England and Aelfthryth had the following Child:

Aethelred II The Unready was born 968 in Wessex, England and died April 23, 1016 in London, Middlesex, England. He married Elfreda (Elfgiva) in 985. His second marriage was to Emma of Normandy. Aethelred succeeded to the throne after the murder of his elder half-brother Edward, an act probably plotted by his mother, Aelfthryth, and the deed cast a shadow over Aethelred's long and politically disastrous rule. Threats from Danish invaders had been growing over the previous reign and when their attacks began to strike from every angle (from 980 onwards) the king proved incapable of organizing a co-ordinated and concerted defence, despite the kingdom being unquestionably stronger than when faced with the same threats a hundred years earlier. Sometimes the Danes were met with strenuous resistance, much more often huge bribes were offered to persuade the raiders to leave, bankrupting the country. Sometimes this Danegeld was even paid by one region, while men from other areas were still fighting, such was the disorganization. As if such annual raids were not enough, Aethelred's political incompetence led him to attempt to exterminate Danes already living peacefully in England, and the resulting St Brice's day massacre (13th Nov 1002) at Oxford caused the death of Gunhild, sister of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard. Inevitably, Sweyn attacked England with great force the following spring, starting a series of attempted invasions by both Sweyn (1003-1006 and 1013-1014), and Thorkell the Tall, another Danish raider (1009-1013). The whole period was filled with treachery, mutual suspicion and defeatism amongst the English, most notably demonstrated by the complete destruction of all 80 ships of the powerful and carefully built up English fleet, through the treachery of its captain. In late 1013, Aethelred was driven out of the country by Sweyn, but the Danish king died only a few weeks later after a fall from his horse, and Aethelred was undeservingly allowed to resume his throne, on terms which show how little trust or confidence his own subjects had in him. His son Edmund Ironside began a revolt against him, but the return to England of Sweyn's son Canute with a large force in 1015, finally united the country. It was too little, much too late however, and by Aethelred's death in April 1016, it was clear the war was going Canute's way. Aethelred's nickname, "the Unready" is actually a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon Unraed, meaning ill advised, a pun on the king's own name; Aethelraed Unraed means "Noble counsel - no counsel". Buried St. Pauls. England. Aethelred died in April 1, 1016 on St. George's Day and his son Edmund was proclaimed king in London. His marriage to Emma provided the basis for the subsequent Norman claim to the English throne.

Major Events of the Reign

980 Danish raids on England begin to increase, but the English are unable to unite.

986 Danes raid Iona, killing the abbot and six monks on the White Sands.

988 Archbishop of Canterbury, Dunstan dies.

991 Battle of Maldon, Danes defeat the men of Essex, the first Viking victory in battle against the English for over a century. Raids increase still further and 10,000 pounds of silver are paid as a bribe, Danegeld, in order to prevent a major fleet from attacking southern England.

994 Danish king, Sweyn Forkbeard leads an attack on England.

997 Sweyn Forkbeard mounts another major raid on the English mainland.

1002 St Brice's Day Massacre. Danes in Oxford are burnt alive while taking refuge in St Frideswide's church. Gunhild, sister of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard and her family are amongst the victims.

1003 King Sweyn of Denmark leads an invasion of England and sacks the East Anglican city of Norwich. He returns to Denmark the next year.

1006 There is another raid by Sweyn Forkbeard, leading an army rampaging through southern England .

1009 Eighty ships of the new English fleet are burnt through the treachery of their English captain. Hemming and Thorkill the Tall lead a large Danish army on a full-scale raid on England.

1010 Thorkill's force burns Oxford and devastates East Anglia.

1012 The Danes raid Kent and burn Canterbury Cathedral. Archbishop Alphege is murdered during a drunken feast, and disgusted by his own troops' brutality, Thorkill changes sides and brings 45 ships into king Aethelred's service.

1013 King Sweyn Forkbeard lands in Kent and establishes rule over England. Aethelred flees to Normandy. 1014 Sweyn dies and Aethelred is restored to power.

1016 Sweyn's son Canute continues the Danish attack on England. Aethelred dies, and rule briefly passes to his son Edmund Ironside. Aethelred II The Unready married Elfreda (Elfgiva) and had the following child:

Edumnd II, Ironside King of England was born 989 in Wessex, England and died November 30, 1016 in Glastonbury, Abbey, Somerset, England. He married Ealdgyth (Algitha) Morcarson born 995 whom he married in Malmsbury, Wiltshire, England. A fine soldier and warlike prince, Edmund offered the only spirited defence of the realm when he opposed the invasions of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard (1013) and later his son Canute (1015-1016). This was in stark contrast to the muddled policy of appeasement and ineffectual attacks pursued by his father, against whom Edmund was about to begin a rebellion, which he abandoned in the face of Canute's invasion. Early in 1016 Edmund laboriously raised an army, but was unable to hold the north of the country against Canute. On his father's death the Witan of London elected Edmund king, the rest of the south however, capitulated to Canute at Southampton, declaring him the successor to Aethelred. In an energetic campaign Edmund won a string of battles in Wessex against Canute, and lifted the siege of London, but was fatally weakened by the treacherous Edric Streona, Earl of Mercia, who refused to commit his troops to the campaign, particularly at the Battle of Ashington in October 1016. Forced to negotiate, Edmund signed a treaty at Olney, partitioning the country between himself and Canute, but died only a few weeks after, probably of natural causes, although he may have been murdered by agents of Edric Streona. Canute was able to thus control the entire country, setting up a powerful Empire composed of England, Norway and Denmark, while Edmund's infant sons were spirited away and raised in Hungary. Buried Gastonbury, Somerset, England. Chosen King of England April 1016. Edmund II Iornside King of England married Ealdgyth (Algitha) Morcarson and had the following child:

Edward Atheling The Exile King of England was born before 1016 in Wessex, England and died 1057 in London, Middlesex, England. He married Agatha born 1025 whom he married in London, Middlesex, England. She is the daughter of Henry II Emperor. Edward had the following children with Agatha:

Saint Margaret Atheling Princess of England and Queen of Scotland was born about 1045 in Hungary and died November 16, 1093 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland and died November 16, 1093 in Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland. She was buried in Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland. Died of grief after her husbands death. She married Malcolm III, Caennmor, King of Scotland about 1068 in Dunferline Abbey, Atholl, Perth, Scotland. Malcolm was born 1031 in Atholl, Perth, Scotland. \par Saint Margaret Princess of England and Queen of Scotland and Malcolm III Caennmor King of England had the following child:

David I, The Saint, King of Scotland was born 1084 in Scotland and died May 24, 1153 in Carlisle, Cumberland, England. On his accession he reorganized the kingdom on Norman lines. He also founded many religious houses. He supported his Neice, Matilda, in England against Stephen. This resulted in his heavy defeat at the battle of the Standard in 1138. He was also the Earl of Huntingdon. He united Alba and Strathclyde. He was also the Earl of Northampton. Popularly reputed as a saint. His feast day is May 24th. 7th in the House of Dunkeld. He was married 1113 in Scotland to Matilda (Maud) Huntington Queen of Scotland in 1113/14 in Scotland. Matilda was born 1072 in Huntington, Huntingtonshire, England and died April 23, 1130 in Scotland and was buried in Scone, Perthshire, England. Matilda is the daughter of Waltheof II, Earl of Huntington (the son of Bjorn) and of Judith De Lens Boulogne (the daughter of Lambert De Lens and Adelaid Princess of Normandy). David I The Saint King of Scotland and Matilda Maud of Huntington and had the following child:

Prince of Scotland Henry Earl of Huntingdon and Earl of Northumberland was born 1114 in Scotland and died June 12, 1152 in Scotland. Asceded 1136. He was buried in Kelso, Roxburghshire, Scotland. He married in 1139 in England to Ada De Warenne born 1120 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England. They had the following child:

Earl David of Huntington born 1144 in Huntingdonshire, England (See Section Three for History)